Volume 15 Issue 2 2019


Kaenat Malik
PAF KIET University.

Prof. Dr. Tariq Jalees
PAF KIET University.

Abstract In today’s competitive world, it has become difficult for organizations to manage and attract a talented workforce. Given this most firms are using employer branding strategies to attract and retain employees. Given its importance, we have developed a new conceptual framework that has five direct hypotheses and three indirect hypotheses. We have collected data from 400 faculty members of the leading business institutes of Karachi. The questionnaire was adapted from the earlier established scales. Smart PLS 3.2 was used for data analysis. This study found that it is important for firms to forego old HR practices and adopt employer branding. The HR manager in the present era is required to spend considerable time building the image of the firms by interacting with all the stakeholders of the firms. A strong brand image is not only attractive to new employees but also enhances the job satisfaction level of the existing employees. Employers' branding promotes a conducive environment due to which employees’ satisfaction level increases but they also develop a sustainable relationship with firms. Thus both the employees and employers benefit from it.
Keywords Employer branding, employee attraction, employee satisfaction, CSR and talent management.
Year 2019
Volume 15
Issue 2
Type Full Length Paper
Recognized by Higher Education Commission of Pakistan, HEC
Category "Y"
Journal Name IBT Journal of Business Studies
Publisher Name ILMA University
Jel Classification E24, E27, M51
ISSN no (E, Electronic) 2409-6520
ISSN no (P, Print) 2416-8393
Country Pakistan
City Karachi
Institution Type University
Journal Type Open Access
Type of Review Double Blind Peer Reviewed
Format PDF
Paper Link
Page 75-94
References Aaker, D. A. (1984). How to select a business strategy. California Management Review, 26(3), 167-175.

Aguilera, R., Rupp, D. E., Williams, C. A., & Ganapathi, J. (2007). Putting the s back in corporate social responsibility: A multilevel theory of social change in organizations. Academy of Management Review, 32(3), 836-863.

Albinger, H. S. & Freeman, S. J. (2000). Corporate social performance and attractiveness as an employer to different job seeking populations, Journal of Business Ethics, 28, 3, 243 - 253.

Ambler, T. & Barrow, S. (1996). The Employer Brand. Journal of Brand Management, 20 (3), 31-67.

Arachchige, B. J., & Robertson, A. (2013). Employer Attractiveness: Comparative Perceptions of Undergraduate and Postgraduate Students. Sri Lankan Journal of Human Resource Management, 4(1), 175-194.

Armstrong, M. (2006). A Handbook Of Human Resource Management Practice. UK; Kogan Page Publishers.

Ashforth, B. E. & Mael, F. (1989): Social Identity Theory and the Organization, The Academy of Management Review, 14 (1), 20-39.

Auer-Antoncic, J., & Antoncic, B. (2011). Employee satisfaction, intrapreneurship and firm growth: a model. Industrial Management & Data Systems, 111(4), 589-607.

Backhaus, K.B., & Tikoo, S. (2004). Conceptualizing and researching employer branding. Career Development International, 9(5), 501-517.

Backhaus, K. (2016). Employer branding revisited. Organization Management Journal, 13(4), 193-201.

Bali, M., & Dixit, S. (2016). Employer brand building for effective talent management. International Journal Of Applied Sciences And Management, 2(1), 183-191.

Becker, G. (1993). Human capital: a theoretical and empirical analysis, whit special reference to education. New York: NationalfeureauofEconomicResearch, Columbia.

Bendaraviciene, R., Krikstolaitis, R., & Turauskas, L. (2013). Exploring employer branding to enhance distinctiveness in higher education. European Scientific Journal, 9(19), 126-159.

Berthon, P., Ewing, M., & Hah, L. L. (2005). Captivating Company: Dimensions of Attractiveness in Employer Branding. International Journal of Advertising, 24(2), 151-172.

Biswas, M. K., & Suar, D. (2016). Antecedents and consequences of employer branding. Journal of Business Ethics, 136(1), 57-72.

Board, S., Meyer-ter-Vehn, M., & Sadzik, T. (2017). Recruiting Talent. UCLA working paper.

Boyko, R. (2014). Improving The Employer Brand Image Of Company X Amongst Students In Finland (Bachelors Thesis). University of Applied Sciences.

Boyd, B. K., Bergh, D. D., & Ketchen Jr, D. J. (2010). Reconsidering the reputation— performance relationship: A resource-based view. Journal of Management, 36(3), 588-609.

Brammer, S., Millington, A., & Rayton, B. (2007). The contribution of corporate social responsibility to organizational commitment. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 18(10), 1701-1719.

Cable, D. M., & Graham, M. E. (2000). The determinants of job seekers’ reputation perceptions. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 21(8), 929-947.

Dabirian,A., Kietzmann, J., & Diba, H. (2017).Agreat place to work!? Understanding crowd sourced employer branding. Business Horizons, 60(2), 197-205.

Dusenge G. & Julius. K. (2016). The Role of Employer Branding on Employee Attraction. A Survey of Selected Organizations in Rwanda, International Journal of Management and Commerce Innovations,4(1), 282-297.

Dutton, J. E.; Duckerich, J. M. & Harquail, C. V. (1994). Organizational images and member identification, Administrative Science Quarterly, 39 (2), 239- 263.

Edwards, M. R. (2010). An integrative review of employer branding and OB theory. Personnel Review, 39(1), 5–23.

Ewing, M. T., Pitt, L. F., De Bussy, N. M., & Berthon, P. (2002). Employment branding in the knowledge economy. International Journal of Advertising, 21(1), 3-22.

Evans, W. R., & Davis, W. D. (2011). An Examination of Perceived Corporate Citizenship, Job Applicant Attraction, and CSR Work Role Definition. Business and Society, 50(3), 456-480.

Fulmer, I. S., Gerhart, B., & Scott, K. S. (2003). Are the 100 best better? An empirical investigation of the relationship between being a “great place to work” and firm performance. Personnel Psychology, 56(4), 965-993.

Gaddam, S. (2008). Modeling employer branding communication: The softer aspect of HR marketing management. The ICFAI Journal of Soft Skills, 2(1), 45–55.

Gond, J. P., & Crane, A. (2010). Corporate social performance disoriented: Saving the lost paradigm?. Business & Society, 49(4), 677-703.

Graham, B. Z., & Cascio, W. F. (2018). The employer-branding journey: Its relationship with cross-cultural branding, brand reputation, and brand repair. Management Research: Journal of the Iberoamerican Academy of Management, 16(4), 363-379.

Gülakan, G. (2013), Employee Satisfaction in Public Service Sector: Yalova Case (Master Thesis).Yalova University: Yalova University Social Sciences Institute.

Hair Junior, J. F., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R. L., & Black, W. C. (1998). Multivariate Data Analysis. New Jersey: Pearson.

Heilmann, P., Saarenketo, S., & Liikkanen, K. (2013). Employer branding in power industry. International Journal of Energy Sector Management, 7(2), 283-302.

Herrbach, O. & Mignonac, K. (2004): How organizational image affects employee attitudes, Human Resource Management Journal, 14 (4), 76–88.

Ibrahim (2017), The Relationship between Corporate Social Responsibility and Employer Attractiveness in Egypt: The Moderating Effect of the Individual’s Income, Contemporary Management Research,13(2),81-106.

Ivancevich John, M., Peter, L., Skinner Steven, J., & Crosby Philip, B. (1997). Manajemen Quality and Competitiveness. Chicago: Irwin.

Jain, N., & Bhatt, P. (2015). Employment preferences of job applicants: unfolding employer branding determinants. Journal of Management Development, 34(6), 634-652.

Jun, M., Cai, S., & Shin, H. (2006). TQM practice in maquiladora: Antecedents of employee satisfaction and loyalty. Journal Of Operations Management, 24(6), 791-812.

Joo, Y. R., Moon, H. K., & Choi, B. K. (2016). A Moderated Mediation Model of CSR and Organizational Attractiveness Among Job Applicants. Management Decision, 54(6), 1269-1293.

Kaliprasad, M. (2006). The human factor I: Attracting, retaining, and motivating capable people. Cost Engineering, 48(6), 20.

Kosteas, V. D. (2011). Job satisfaction and promotions. Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society, 50(1), 174-194.

Kotler, P., & Lee, N. (2008). Corporate Social Responsibility: Doing The Most Good For Your Company And Your Cause. UK: John Wiley & Sons.

Kryger Aggerholm, H., Esmann Andersen, S., & Thomsen, C. (2011). Conceptualizing employer branding in sustainable organizations. Corporate Communications: An International Journal, 16(2), 105-123.

Lai, C. S., Chiu, C. J., Yang, C. F., & Pai, D. C. (2010). The effects of corporate social responsibility on brand performance: The mediating effect of industrial brand equity and corporate reputation. Journal of Business Ethics, 95, 457–469.

Lewis, R. E., & Heckman, R. J. (2006). Talent management: A critical review. Human resource management review, 16(2), 139-154.

Lievens, F., & Highhouse, S. (2003). The relation of instrumental and symbolic attributes to a company’s attractiveness as an employer. Personnel Psychology, 56(1), 75-102.

Lis, B. (2012). The Relevance of Corporate Social Responsibility for a Sustainable Human Resource Management: An Analysis of Organizational Attractiveness as a Determinant in Employees’ Selection of a (Potential) Employer. Management Review, 23(3), 279-295.

Lloyd, S., (2002). Branding from the inside out. Business Review Weekly, 24(10), 64-66.

Luo, X., & Bhattacharya, C. B. (2006). Corporate social responsibility, customer satisfaction, and market value. Journal of Marketing, 70(4), 1-18.

Luce, R. A., Barber, A. E., & Hillman, A. J. (2001). Good Deeds and Misdeeds: A Mediated Model of the Effect of Corporate Social Performance on Organizational Attractiveness. Business and Society, 40(4), 397-415.

Maden, C., Arikan, E., Telci, E. E., & Kantur, D. (2012). Linking corporate social responsibility to corporate reputation: A study on understanding behavioral consequences. Social and Behavioral Sciences, 58, 655–664.

Mahesh R., & Suresh, B.H. (2019), Employer Branding as an HR Tool for Talent Management – An Overview, International Journal of Management Studies, 6(5), 74-80.

Mandhanya, Y., & Shah, M. (2010). Employer branding: a tool for talent management. Global Management Review, 4(2), 43–48.

Mahroum, S. (2000). Highly skilled globetrotters: mapping the international migration of human capital. Journal R&D Management, 30(1), 23-32.

Martin, G. and Beaumont, P. (2003). Branding and People Management, CIPD Research Report, CIPD, London.

Martin, G., Gollan, P. J., & Grigg, K. (2011). Is there a bigger and better future for employer branding? Facing up to innovation, corporate reputations and wicked problems in SHRM. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 22(17/11), 3618–3637.

Martinuzzi, A., Krumay, B., & Pisano, U. (2011). Focus CSR: The new communication of the EU commission on CSR and national CSR strategies and action plans. European Sustainable Development Network (ESDN), Quarterly Report No, 23.

Maxwell, R., & Knox, S. (2009). Motivating employees to” live the brand”: a comparative case study of employer brand attractiveness within the firm. Journal of marketing management, 25(9-10), 893-907.

Mueller, M. (2012). CSR innovation: a comparative study of India and the UK (Doctoral dissertation). Oxford University.

Mittal, V., & Kamakura, W. A. (2001). Satisfaction, repurchase intent, and repurchase behavior: Investigating the moderating effect of customer characteristics. Journal of Marketing Research, 38(1), 131-142.

Mihalcea, A. (2017). Employer branding and talent management in the digital age. Management Dynamics in the Knowledge Economy, 5(2), 289-306.

Miles, S. J., & Mangold, W. G. (2004). A conceptualization of the employee branding process. Journal of Relationship Marketing, 3(2/3), 65–87.

Montgomery, D. B., & Ramus, C. A. (2011). Calibrating MBA job preferences for the 21st century. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 10(1), 9-26.

Moroko, L., & Uncles, M. D. (2008). Characteristics of successful employer brands. Journal of Brand Managemet, 16(3), 160–175.

Mosley, R. W. (2007). Customer experience, organizational culture and the employer brand. Journal of Brand Management, 15(2), 123-134.

Okonkwo, U. (2016). Luxury Fashion Branding: Trends, Tactics, Techniques. Germany: Springer.

Pahor, M., & Franca, V. (2012). The Strength of the Employer Brand: Influences and Implications for Recruiting. Journal of Marketing and Management, 3 (1), 78−122.

Priyadarshi, P. (2011). Employer brand image as predictor of employee satisfaction, affective commitment & turnover. Indian Journal of Industrial Relations, 510- 522.

Puncheva-Michelotti, P., Hudson, S., & Jin, G. (2018). Employer branding and CSR communication in online recruitment advertising. Business Horizons, 61(4), 643-651.

Rupp, D. E., Ganapathi, J., Aguilera, R. V., & Williams, C. A. (2006). Employee reactions to corporate social responsibility: An organizational justice framework. Journal of Organizational Behavior: The International Journal of Industrial, Occupational and Organizational Psychology and Behavior, 27(4), 537-543.

Russell, J. (2009). Web 2.0 technology: How is it impacting your employer brand? Nursing Economics, 27(5), 335–336.

Rynes, S. L., Bretz Jr, R. D., & Gerhart, B. (1991). The importance of recruitment in job choice: A different way of looking. Personnel Psychology, 44(3), 487- 521.

Sathya, S., & Indradevi, R. (2014). Branding for Talent Attraction and Retention of Employees: A Literature Review. International Journal of Scientific Research, 3(8), 202-204.

Schiebel, W., & Pöchtrager, S. (2003). Corporate ethics as a factor for success–the measurement instrument of the University of Agricultural Sciences (BOKU), Vienna. Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, 8(2), 116-121.

Scheidler, S., Edinger-Schons, L. M., Spanjol, J., & Wieseke, J. (2019). Scrooge posing as Mother Teresa: How hypocritical social responsibility strategies hurt employees and firms. Journal of Business Ethics, 157(2), 339-358.

Slavković, M., Pavlović, G., & Simić, M. (2018). Employee recruitment and its relationship with employee satisfaction: Verifying the mediating role of the employer brand. Ekonomski Horizonti, 20(2), 127-139.

Spence, M. A. (1973). Job Market Signaling. quarterly Journal of Economics, 87, 355-74.

Srivastava, P., & Bhatnagar, J. (2008). Talent acquisition due diligence leading to high employee engagement: case of Motorola India MDB. Industrial and Commercial Training, 40(5), 253-260.

Suliman, A., & Al-Khatib, H. (2014, June). Corporate social responsibility and employer branding: A study in the public sector. In Proceedings of 27th International Business Research Conference. Ryerson University. Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Sutherland, M. M., Torricelli, D. G., & Karg, R. F. (2002). Employer-of- choice branding for knowledge workers. South African Journal of Business Management, 33(4), 13-20.

Tanwar, K., & Prasad, A. (2016). Exploring the relationship between employer branding and employee retention. Global Business Review, 17(3), 186-206.

Theurer, C. P., Tumasjan, A., Welpe, I. M., & Lievens, F. (2018). Employer branding: a brand equity‐based literature review and research agenda. International Journal of Management Reviews, 20(1), 155-179.

Verčič, A. T., & Ćorić, D. S. (2018). The relationship between reputation, employer branding and corporate social responsibility. Public Relations Review, 44(4), 444-452.

Tsai, W. C., & Yang, I. W. F. (2010). Does image matter to different job applicants? The influences of corporate image and applicant individual differences on organizational attractiveness. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 18(1), 48-63.

Turban, D. B., & Greening, D. W. (1997). Corporate social performance and organizational attractiveness to prospective employees. Academy of Management Journal, 40(3), 658-672.

Turner, M. R., McIntosh, T., Reid, S. W., & Buckley, M. R. (2019). Corporate implementation of socially controversial CSR initiatives: Implications for human resource management. Human Resource Management Review, 29(1), 125-136.

Wayne F. Cascio (2014) Leveraging employer branding, performance management and human resource development to enhance employee retention, Human Resource Development International, 17(2), 121-128.

Wilden, R., Gudergan, S., & Lings, I. (2010). Employer branding: Strategic implications for staff recruitment. Journal of Marketing Management, 26(1/2), 56–73.

Yalım, F., & Mızrak, K. C. (2017). A field study on the relationship between employer brand and employee satisfaction. International Review of Management and Marketing, 7(2), 92-103.