Volume 15 Issue 1 2019


Muhammad Azeem Qureshi
Institute of Business Management (IoBM), Senior Lecturer, Institute of Business Management.

Abdur Rahman Aleemi
Institute of Business Management (IoBM), Senior Lecturer, Institute of Business Management.

Syed Irfan Hyder
Institute of Business Management.

Abstract The connection between inferior leadership and massive business meltdown and inadequacy of seasoned leadership models create an urge to seek leadership equipped with ethical behavior, concern for subordinates, all the stakeholders, and the society as a whole. This literature survey examines existing literature addressing servant leadership theory. Servant leadership theory has not yet been legitimized as a mainstream leadership theory therefore, it is worthy to examine its antecedents, outcomes, and different mediating and moderating mechanisms to have in-depth knowledge of servant leadership concepts and to understand how it differs from other mainstream leadership theories. This study analyzed the literature using a descriptive approach as proposed by Turnnidge & Côté (2016). The study has been carried out in three phases. The first phase is concerned with a screening of abstracts and citations related to the variable of interests, in the second phase, peer discussion was made to retain valuable literature and exclusion of literature which does not fall in set criterion. In the third phase, the full text of articles and relevant literature were reviewed which were potentially related to and are of interest. It was found that servant leadership is a different concept that is more comprehensive and predicts more positive outcomes than its predecessor leadership models. A systematic literature review provided detailed insight concerning servant leadership theory and its outcomes which led to the development of taxonomy which was further used to develop an integrated model of causal flow through mediating and moderating mechanisms and then was further refined to identify servant leadership interaction with different organization and behavioral variables. The findings of this research suggest the possible impact of servant leadership in power distant culture which is inconsistent in contemporary research and needs to be investigated for validation of servant leadership’s concept in third world countries.
Keywords Servant leadership, Job satisfaction, Organizational commitment
Year 2019
Volume 15
Issue 1
Type Research paper, manuscript, article
Recognized by Higher Education Commission of Pakistan, HEC
Category "Y"
Journal Name IBT Journal of Business Studies
Publisher Name ILMA University
Jel Classification J29, J49
ISSN no (E, Electronic) 2409-6520
ISSN no (P, Print) 2416-8393
Country Pakistan
City Karachi
Institution Type University
Journal Type Open Access
Type of Review Double Blind Peer Reviewed
Format PDF
Paper Link
Page 219-230
References Aryee, S., Chen, Z. X., Sun, L.-Y., & Debrah, Y. A. (2007). Antecedents and outcomes of abusive supervision: test of a trickle-down model. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(1), 191.

Ashforth, B. E., & Mael, F. (1989). Social identity theory and the organization. Academy of Management Review, 14(1), 20–39.

Avolio, B. J., & Gardner, W. L. (2005). Authentic leadership development: Getting to the root of positive forms of leadership. The Leadership Quarterly, 16(3), 315–338.

Babakus, E., Yavas, U., & Ashill, N. J. (2010). Service worker burnout and turnover intentions: Roles of person-job fit, servant leadership, and customer orientation. Services Marketing Quarterly, 32(1), 17–31.

Bandura, A., & McClelland, D. C. (1977). Social learning theory.

Barbuto, J. E., Wheeler, D. W., & others. (2006). Scale development and construct clarification of servant leadership. Group & Organization Management, 31(3), 300–326.

Bobbio, A., Van Dierendonck, D., & Manganelli, A. M. (2012). Servant leadership in Italy and its relation to organizational variables. Leadership, 8(3), 229–243.

Brown, M. E., Treviño, L. K., & Harrison, D. A. (2005). Ethical leadership: A social learning perspective for construct development and testing. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 97(2), 117–134.

Cerit, Y. (2009). The effects of servant leadership behaviours of school principals on teachers’ job satisfaction. Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 37(5), 600–623.

CH Chan, S., & Mak, W. (2014). The impact of servant leadership and subordinates’ organizational tenure on trust in leader and attitudes. Personnel Review, 43(2), 272–287.

Chiniara, M., & Bentein, K. (2016). Linking servant leadership to individual performance: Differentiating the mediating role of autonomy, competence and relatedness need satisfaction. The Leadership Quarterly, 27(1), 124–141.

Choudhary, A. I., Akhtar, S. A., & Zaheer, A. (2013). Impact of transformational and servant leadership on organizational performance: A comparative analysis. Journal of Business Ethics, 116(2), 433–440.

Cooper, D., & Thatcher, S. M. (2010). Identification in organizations: The role of self-concept orientations and identification motives. Academy of Management Review, 35(4), 516–538.

Cummings, G. G., MacGregor, T., Davey, M., Wong, C. A., Lo, E., Muise, M., & Stafford, E. (2010). Leadership styles and outcome patterns for the nursing workforce and work environment: a systematic review. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 47(3), 363–385.

Dennis, R. S., & Bocarnea, M. (2005). Development of the servant leadership assessment instrument. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 26(8), 600–615.

Donia, M. B., Raja, U., Panaccio, A., & Wang, Z. (2016). Servant leadership and employee outcomes: the moderating role of subordinates’ motives. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 1–13.

Ehrhart, M. G. (2004). Leadership and procedural justice climate as antecedents of unit-level organizational citizenship behavior. Personnel Psychology, 57(1), 61–94.

Graham, J. W. (1991). Servant-leadership in organizations: Inspirational and moral. The Leadership Quarterly, 2(2), 105–119.

Greenhaus, J. H., & Powell, G. N. (2006). When work and family are allies: A theory of work- family enrichment. Academy of Management Review, 31(1), 72–92.

Greenleaf, R. K. (1970). The Servant as Leader, The Robert K. Greenleaf Center, Indianapolis, IN.

Greenleaf, R. K. (1977). Servant leadership. New York: Paulist Press.

Greenleaf, R. K. (1997). The servant as leader. University of Notre Dame Press. Retrieved from

Greenleaf, R. K., & Spears, L. C. (1998). The power of servant-leadership: Essays. Berrett-Koehler Publishers.

Greenleaf, R. K., & Spears, L. C. (2002). Servant leadership: A journey into the nature of legitimate power and greatness. Paulist Press.

Gregory Stone, A., Russell, R. F., & Patterson, K. (2004). Transformational versus servant leadership: A difference in leader focus. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 25(4), 349–361.

Hanson, G. C., Hammer, L. B., & others. (2006). Development and validation of a multidimensional scale of perceived work-family positive spillover. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology,11(3), 249.

Hess, H. (1956). The journey to the east. New York: Farrar Straus Giroux.

Hobfoll, S. E. (1989). Conservation of resources: A new attempt at conceptualizing stress. American Psychologist, 44(3), 513.

Johnson, C. E. (2012). Meeting the Ethical Challenges of Leadership. Retrieved from http://www.

Kool, M., & van Dierendonck, D. (2012). Servant leadership and commitment to change, the mediating role of justice and optimism. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 25(3), 422–433.

Laub, J. (2003). From paternalism to the servant organization: Expanding the Organizational Leadership Assessment (OLA) model. In Proceedings of the Servant Leadership Research Roundtable.

Laub, J. A. (1999). Assessing the servant organization: Development of the servant organizational leadership (SOLA) instrument. Florida Atlantic University. Dissertation Abstracts International (ProQuest Digital Dissertations), 60(02).

Lee, R. T., & Ashforth, B. E. (1996). A meta-analytic examination of the correlates of the three dimensions of job burnout. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81(2), 123.

Liden, R. C., Wayne, S. J., Liao, C., & Meuser, J. D. (2014). Servant leadership and serving culture: Influence on individual and unit performance. Academy of Management Journal, 57(5), 1434– 1452.

Liden, R. C., Wayne, S. J., Zhao, H., & Henderson, D. (2008). Servant leadership: Development of a multidimensional measure and multi-level assessment. The Leadership Quarterly, 19(2), 161–177.

Newman, A., Schwarz, G., Cooper, B., & Sendjaya, S. (2015). How servant leadership influences organizational citizenship behavior: The roles of LMX, empowerment, and proactive personality. Journal of Business Ethics, 1–14.

Organ, D. W. (1988). Organizational citizenship behavior: The good soldier syndrome. Lexington Books/DC Heath and Com.

Parris, D. L., & Peachey, J. W. (2013). A systematic literature review of servant leadership theory in organizational contexts. Journal of Business Ethics, 113(3), 377–393.

Schaufeli, W. B., & Bakker, A. B. (2004). Job demands, job resources, and their relationship with burnout and engagement: A multi-sample study. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 25(3), 293–315.

Schneider, S. K., & George, W. M. (2011). Servant leadership versus transformational leadership in voluntary service organizations. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 32(1), 60–77.

Sendjaya, S., Sarros, J. C., & Santora, J. C. (2008). Defining and measuring servant leadership behaviour in organizations. Journal of Management Studies, 45(2), 402–424.

Slatersf, N. J. C. (1995). Market Orientation andtheLearning Organisation. Journalof MarKeting, 59(3), 63–74.

Stone, A. G., & Patterson, K. (2005). The history of leadership focus. In Servant Leadership Research Roundtable Proceedings.

Tang, G., Kwan, H. K., Zhang, D., & Zhu, Z. (2015). Work–family effects of servant leadership: The roles of emotional exhaustion and personal learning. Journal of Business Ethics, 1–13.

Turnnidge, J., & Côté, J. (2016). Applying transformational leadership theory to coaching research in youth sport: A systematic literature review. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 1–16.

Van Dierendonck, D. (2011). Servant leadership: A review and synthesis. Journal of Management, 37(4), 1228–1261.

Van Dierendonck, D., & Nuijten, I. (2011). The servant leadership survey: Development and validation of a multidimensional measure. Journal of Business and Psychology, 26(3), 249–267.

Vermeulen, F., Puranam, P., & Gulati, R. (2010). Change for change’s sake. Harvard Business Review, 88(6), 70–76.

Whetstone, J. T. (2002). Personalism and moral leadership: The servant leader with a transforming vision. Business Ethics: A European Review, 11(4), 385–392.

Whittington, J. L., Frank, B. A., May, R. C., Murray, B., & Goodwin, V. (2006). Servant leadership in organizations: Scale development and validation. In Academy of Management Meeting, Atlanta, GA.

Wong, P. T., & Page, D. (2003). Servant leadership: An opponent-process model and the revised servant leadership profile. In Proceedings of the Servant Leadership Research Roundtable. Citeseer.

Wu, L.-Z., Tse, E. C.-Y., Fu, P., Kwan, H. K., & Liu, J. (2013). The impact of servant leadership on hotel employees’“servant behavior.” Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 54(4), 383–395.

Yoshida, D. T., Sendjaya, S., Hirst, G., & Cooper, B. (2014). Does servant leadership foster creativity and innovation? A multi-level mediation study of identification and prototypicality. Journal of Business Research, 67(7), 1395–1404.

Zhang, H., Kwong Kwan, H., Everett, A. M., & Jian, Z. (2012). Servant leadership, organizational